Negative emission technologies (NETs) includes a variety of different approaches for removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. One of the most promising technologies for retrofitting existing production plants is combining bioenergy sources with carbon capture and storage (BECCS).
In general, integrating BECCS at larger plants is the most cost-effective alternative. The total capital cost per each ton of captured CO2 decreases with an increasing emission source.
Looking at the last decade in Sweden ~30 plants emitted <300 000 tonnes of biogenic CO2 yearly, adding up to about 25-28 Mt/year as shown in the figure below. The emissions originate primarily from:
- Pulp and paper production
- Combined heat and electricity generation (biomass)
- Combined heat and electricity generation (municipal solid waste)
These plants have, due to their size and CO2 origin, the potential to remove about 50% of Sweden’s territorial emissions according to data from the Swedish EPA (Sveriges officiella statistik – Nationella utsläpp och upptag av växthusgaser – Naturvårdsverket (naturvardsverket.se)
For more information regarding BECCS check out our whitepaper on negative emissions.